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By Maria Lucia Kawasaki

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Vesicatoria) and bacterial speck (P. syringae pv. tomato) of tomato, and bacterial brown spot (P. syringae pv. syringae), common blight (X. phaseoli), and halo blight (P. syringae pv. phaseolicola) of bean. Phytopathogenic bacteria also induce other types of necrotic diseases. Erwinia amylovora, causal agent of fireblight, was the first bacterial species to be identified as a plant pathogen. Fireblight symptoms often progress from watersoaking to wilting and blackening of the tissue, with characteristic symptoms of shriveled black flowers and darkened twigs with hanging leaves.

E. amylovora infection occurs primarily through blossoms and secondarily through wounds, and is followed by multiplication in the intercellular spaces, host cell collapse and necrosis, bacterial spread into older tissue, and induction of plant-directed deposition of cork layers, forming cankers that support overwintering of E. amylovora. In the spring, E. amylovora cells multiply and ooze out of the canker margins, spreading via wind and attachment to insects. Canker of stone and pome fruits (P.

Aeruginosa, aureofaciens, corrugate, syringae), Serratia marcescens, and Streptomyces spp. , 2000). Among these, biocontrol-active Pseudomonas species have been best characterized at the molecular level. Some biocontrol bacteria have been identified based on their presence in disease suppressive soils, which are soils that foster only low levels of one or more soilborne diseases. Investigations into the mechanisms of this suppressiveness have sometimes indicated a microbial basis. For example, disease suppressive soils that reduce take-all of wheat, a fungal disease caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var.

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