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By Berdanier, Carolyn D

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Glycogen accumulation and utilization patterns mature as well, so that the infant and young child can be fed less frequently. 52,53,55 Heat production due to uncoupling protein also occurs in muscle and white adipose tissue. Uncoupling proteins 2 and 3 (UCP2 and UCP3) have been identified. Their distribution is quite different from that of UCP1. 54 As UCP2 rises, peroxides levels fall. 58 Diets rich in polyunsaturated fats are less thermogenic than diets rich in saturated fats. Abnormal Energy States Starvation and Undernutrition The basic metabolic response to starvation of an otherwise healthy individual is conservation.

In one study, adopted children and their biological and adoptive parents were compared with respect to body weight and body fatness, whereas in other studies twins reared together or apart were compared. 70, depending on the definition of obesity and body mass index used. Overfeeding studies of twins have been conducted by Bouchard and associates that showed that identical twins will gain a similar amount of weight, whereas siblings or unrelated subjects will be highly variable. After the overfeeding period, there were also genetic differences in weight-loss patterns.

There are a number of reports on body density and body fat using this technique. Age affects body density and percent body fat. 75. 56. 78 are constants and the density (g/cc), body weight (kg), and TBW (kg) are determined. 732. , as contrasted to the depot lipids) by adding 3%. 74 Estimating fat stores in this way is cumbersome or not feasible in many clinical settings or under conditions of field surveys. Researchers using this method have made some correlations between this estimate and estimates of body fatness using the measurements of skinfold thicknesses at key locations, that is, places where subcutaneous fat can be assessed using calipers to estimate the skinfold thickness.

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