By Rebecca L. Lankey, Paul T. Anastas
content material: computing device generated contents be aware: 1. Sustainability via eco-friendly Chemistry and Engineering Paul T. Anastas and Rebecca L. Lankey 2. Sustainable improvement via commercial Ecology Joseph Fiksel three. examine and improvement wishes for a completely Sustainable Biocommodity Charles E. Wyman four. Tetraamido Macrocyclic Ligand Catalytic Oxidant Activators within the Pulp and Paper Terrence J. Collins, Colin P. Horwitz, Alexander D. Ryabov, Leonard D. Vuocolo, Sayam S. Gupta, Anindya Ghosh, Nadine L. Fattaleh, Yelda Hangun, Bradley Steinhoff, Christopher A. Noser, Evan seashore, Duane Prasuhn, Jr, Trevor Stuthridge, Kathryn G. Wingate, Jenny corridor, L. James Wright, Ian Suckling, and Robert W. Allison five. Spinosad: A eco-friendly normal Product for Insect Contol Gary D. Thompson and Tom C. Sparks 6. towards Benign Synthesis through Catalytic Oxidations utilizing Dioxygen or Nitrous Oxide Klaus H. Theopold, Olivia M. Reinaud, Sebastien Blanchard, Somying Leelasubcharoen, Alexandra Hess, and Sunita Thyagarajan 7. An Environmentally Benign Catalytic Polyoxometalate expertise for reworking wooden Pulp into Paper Ira A. Weinstock, Elena M.G. Barbuzzi, Dan M. Sonnen, and Craig L. Hill eight. Enhancement of Herbicide and Insecticide task with Thermal Polyaspartate Ramon Georgis, Robert J. Ross, and Larry P. Koskan nine. utilizing Atom move Radical Polymerization in Environmentally Benign approaches Scott Gaynor, Jian Qiu, and Krzysztof Matyjaszewski 10. producing Benign substitute Syntheses: The SynGen software James B. Hendrickson eleven. improvement of a versatile process for the Simultaneous Conversion of Biomass to Indhustrial chemical substances and the creation of business Biocatalysts Johnway Gao, Brian S. Hooker, Rodney S. Skeen, and Daniel B. Anderson 12. Radiation Chemistry: the root for an Inherently eco-friendly method know-how Anthony J. Berejka thirteen. cheap Composites and Plastics from Renewable assets: half I: Synthesis of Monomers and Polymers Richard P. Wool, Shrikant N. Khot, John J. LaScala, Shana P. Bunker, Jue Lu, Wim Thielemans, Erde Can, Shantaram S. Morye, and George I. Williams 14. reasonable Composites and Plastics from Renewable assets: half II: Manufacture of Composites Richard P. Wool, Shrikant iN Khot, John J. LaScala, Shana P. Bunker, Jue Lu, Win Thielemans, Erde Cam, Shantaram S. Morye, and George 1. Williams 15. towards a eco-friendly Chemistry and Engineering resolution for the U.S. strength undefined: lowering Emissions and changing Waste Streams into Value-Added items M.M. Mercedes Maroto-Valer, John M. Andersen, and Yinzhi Zhang Indexes writer Index topic Index.
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Extra resources for Advancing Sustainability through Green Chemistry and Engineering
ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 2002. 43 (4). Each shows that biomass can be converted into ethanol at costs that could compete in the open market, but because a summary of each has been presented previously (5), the former two will not be discussed here. However, a few key points are presented below about the advanced technology study because it is relevant to other products that could be made in a biorefinery. The most expensive processing steps for converting biomass to ethanol or other products are pretreatment, which contributes about one-third of the cost, and biological conversion of cellulose to glucose and fermentation of glucose and other sugars to ethanol, collectively representing almost 40% of the total (4).
Internal equity financing is possible for large companies, but hurdle rates can be too high to accommodate contingencies and other margins for first-of-a-kind technology. Project financing offers lower rates of return for debt holders, but the demands on project certainty and longevity are significant. In any financial arrangement, uncertainty and risk for biocommodity projects must be minimized (20). This can require that contracts be in place for an adequate supply of biomass to the plant over much of its financial life.
37 derived from sustainable sources instead of the fossil sources commonly assumed in such studies. This is analogous to the fact that tankers burn petroleum to cross the oceans and still deliver much more than they consume at a low cost. Thus, provided the crops employed have little impact on soils, biomass-derived products such as ethanol are renewable. While bioethanol clearly can be made with little, i f any, fossil fuel inputs, the energy balance for some polymeric products has been shown to be less favorable than for fossil fuel options (75, 16).