By R. Lyman Ott, Micheal T. Longnecker
Information is a proposal method. during this accomplished creation to statistical equipment and information research, the method is gifted using a four-step method: 1) collecting info, 2) summarizing info, three) interpreting facts, and four) speaking the result of info analyses.
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Extra info for An Introduction to Statistical Methods and Data Analysis
7 Factor–level combinations for the 3 ϫ 3 factorial experiment Treatment Phosphorus Nitrogen 1 10 40 2 10 50 3 10 60 4 20 40 5 20 50 6 20 60 7 30 40 8 30 50 33 9 30 60 example, we could run an experiment with two levels of phosphorus and three levels of nitrogen, a 2 ϫ 3 factorial experiment. Also, the number of factors can be more than two. The corn yield experiment could have involved treatments consisting of four levels of potassium along with the three levels of phosphorus and nitrogen, a 4 ϫ 3 ϫ 3 factorial experiment.
Scientific studies, on the other hand, tend to be more active: The person conducting the study varies the experimental conditions to study the effect of the conditions on the outcome of the experiment. For example, the transportation department could decrease the bus fares on a few selected routes and assess whether the usage of its buses increased. However, in this example, other factors not under the bus system’s control may also have changed during this time period. Thus, an increase in bus usage may have taken place because of a strike of subway workers or an increase in gasoline prices.
These questionnaires usually are mailed to the individuals included in the sample, although other distribution methods can be used. The questionnaire must be carefully constructed if it is to encourage participation by the respondents. The self-administered questionnaire does not require interviewers, and thus its use results in savings in the survey cost. This savings in cost is usually bought at the expense of a lower response rate. Nonresponse can be a problem in any form of data collection, but since we have the least contact with respondents in a mailed questionnaire, we frequently have the lowest rate of response.