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By Yan Xuetong, Daniel A. Bell, Sun Zhe, Edmund Ryden

The upward thrust of China may be the most vital political improvement of the twenty-first century. what is going to China appear like sooner or later? What should still it appear like? And what's going to China's upward thrust suggest for the remainder of international? This e-book, written by way of China's such a lot influential international coverage philosopher, units out a imaginative and prescient for the arrival a long time from China's element of view.

within the West, Yan Xuetong is frequently considered as a hawkish coverage consultant and enemy of liberal internationalists. yet a really varied photo emerges from this e-book, as Yan examines the teachings of historical chinese language political proposal for the way forward for China and the improvement of a "Beijing consensus" in diplomacy. Yan, it turns into transparent, is neither a communist who believes that fiscal may well is the most important to nationwide energy, nor a neoconservative who believes that China should still depend on army may possibly to get its approach. relatively, Yan argues, political management is the most important to nationwide energy, and morality is an important a part of political management. financial and armed forces may well are very important parts of nationwide strength, yet they're secondary to political leaders who act based on ethical norms, and a similar holds real in picking out the hierarchy of the worldwide order.

delivering new insights into the contemplating one among China's prime international coverage figures, this ebook should be crucial interpreting for somebody drawn to China's upward push or in foreign relations.

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101 Hence, Xunzi says, “It is possible for a state to be stolen from others; it is not possible for all under heaven to be stolen from others. ’ Laozi thinks that all under heaven has to do with transsecular authority and hence is totally different from the secular state. Acquiring state power and acquiring all under heaven cannot be achieved in the same way. All under heaven naturally accrues to one. In this Laozi shares the view of Xunzi. ”104 He even holds that not only can human striving not acquire all under heaven, but no one can hold it: “I have seen that it is not possible to acquire all under heaven by striving.

The pre-Qin expression “to reign over all under heaven” and our modern expression “to attain hegemony over the world” have both similarities and differences. 2. The Nature of All under Heaven We can classify the pre-Qin thinkers discussed in this essay into four groups depending on their answer to the question whether all under heaven and the state share the same nature. Mozi and Hanfeizi think that the authority of the state and all under heaven share a common nature; 43 44 YAN XUETONG Guanzi holds that they are dissimilar; Confucius, Mencius, and Xunzi think that the state is a matter of power and all under heaven is a moral authority, and hence they are different in nature; Laozi thinks that the difference between state and all under heaven lies in the former being secular and the later being transsecular.

The two axes are those of analytical level and epistemological ideas. 1. Levels of System, State, and the Individual Following the three levels of analysis of international relations, we can classify the analytical perspectives of Mozi and Laozi as on the level of the system, those of Guanzi and Hanfeizi as on the level of the state, and those of Confucius, Mencius, and Xunzi as on the level of the individual person. PRE-QIN POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY Mozi and Laozi analyze interstate relations from the viewpoint of the whole interest of the whole world rather than from that of the advantage of each state.

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